Handling Multibyte Characters And Strings In R Project
If you encounter this problem when reading csv-files, you might want to try to change the encoding from UTF-8 to latin1. This worked for me when using the tolower function in R.
Pretty nice solution here with gsub (https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38828620/how-to-remove-strange-char…):
gsub('[^\x20-\x7E]', '', text)
Key words: multi byte utf-8 latin1